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Videos uploaded by user “Bozeman Science”
What is CRISPR?
 
07:21
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the CRISPR/Cas immune system was identified in bacteria and how the CRISPR/Cas9 system was developed to edit genomes. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Adenosine. (2009). English: Artistic rendering of a T4 bacteriophage. The colours grey and orange do not signify anything, they are just used to illustrate structure. Created for Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PhageExterior.svg E. coli Bacteria. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/16598492368/ Fioretti, B. F. Hallbauer &. (2015). English: Director, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Regulation in Infection Biology. Visiting professor The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden MIMS; http://www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/research/regulation_in_infection_biology. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emmanuelle_Charpentier.jpg Foresman, P. S. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: Line art drawing of a chimera. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chimera_(PSF).jpg Magladem96. (2014). English: Picture of DNA Base Flipping. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dna-base-flipping.svg project, C. wiki. (2014). English: Crystal Structure of Cas9 bound to DNA based on the Anders et al 2014 Nature paper. Rendition was performed using UCSF’s chimera software. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cas9_Anders_DNA_bound_structure.png Providers, P. C. (1979). English: Photomicrograph of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria, 900x Mag. A pus specimen, viewed using Pappenheim’s stain. Last century, infections by S. pyogenes claimed many lives especially since the organism was the most important cause of puerperal fever and scarlet fever. Streptococci. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streptococcus_pyogenes.jpg RRZEicons. (2010). English: zipper, open, close. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zipper.svg UC Berkeley. (n.d.). Gene editing with CRISPR-Cas9. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avM1Yg5oEu0
Views: 685161 Bozeman Science
Phases of Meiosis
 
08:26
In this video Paul Andersen explains the major phases of meiosis including: interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, interphase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. He explains how variation is created in the next generation through meiosis and sexual reproduction. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: File:Karyotype Color Chromosomes White Background.png, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karyotype_color_chromosomes_white_background.png. File:Mars-Male-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Blue.svg, n.d. "File:Sky Spectral Karyotype.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 7, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sky_spectral_karyotype.png. File:Venus-Female-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Pink.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venus-female-symbol-pseudo-3D-pink.svg. ScienceGenetics. Español: Espermatozoide Fecunadno a Óvulo., June 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:06fertilizado.jpg. Unknown. English: A Sperm Cell Fertilizing an Egg Cell, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm-egg.jpg.
Views: 1168675 Bozeman Science
Cellular Respiration
 
14:14
Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1591895 Bozeman Science
Meiosis
 
09:16
Paul Andersen explains how the process of meiosis produces variable gametes. He starts with a brief discussion of haploid and diploid cells. He compares and contrasts spermatogenesis and oogenesis. He explains how each person is different due to independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 522798 Bozeman Science
Transcription and Translation
 
11:57
Paul Andersen explains the central dogma of biology. He explains how genes in the DNA are converted to mRNA through the process of transcription. He then explains how ribosomes use this message to convert the mRNA to a functioning protein. He also shows you how to decode a gene by converting the DNA to complementary mRNA and then to the specific amino acids in a protein. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1139258 Bozeman Science
Solving Hardy Weinberg Problems
 
11:08
Paul Andersen shows you how to solve simple Hardy-Weinberg problems. He starts with a brief description of a gene pool and shows you how the formula is derived. He then shows you how to solve a couple of sample problems. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 892147 Bozeman Science
Signal Transduction Pathways
 
09:25
038 - Signal Transduction Pathways.mov Paul Andersen explains how signal transduction pathways are used by cells to convert chemical messages to cellular action. Epinephrine is used as a sample messenger to trigger the release of glucose from cells in the liver. The G-Protein, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinases are all used as illustrative examples of signal transduction. A review of the concepts is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Dora and Boots.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dora_and_Boots.jpg&oldid=468219594. "File:Jimi Hendrix 1967 Uncropped.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jimi_Hendrix_1967_uncropped.jpg. "File:MarshallStack Slayer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MarshallStack_Slayer.jpg. "File:Pickup-SSH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pickup-SSH.jpg. Juancoronado1974. English: Phospholipid Bilayer, November 23, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bilayer.png.
Views: 964428 Bozeman Science
The Immune System
 
13:47
Paul Andersen explains how your body protects itself from invading viruses and bacteria. He starts by describing the nonspecific immune responses of skin and inflammation. He then explains how we use antibodies to disrupt the function of antigens and mark them for destruction. He then explains both the homoral and cell-mediated immune response highlighting the importance of B and T lymphocytes. He finally describes the process of long term immunity. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 797686 Bozeman Science
Lipids
 
07:05
In this video Paul Andersen describes the lipids (of the fats). He explains how they are an important source of energy but are also required to cell membranes. He explains how the hydrocarbon tails in triglycerides contain energy available for life. He also explains how phospholipids construct, and cholesterol molecules main the cell membrane. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 584294 Bozeman Science
The Muscular System
 
05:59
Paul Andersen explains the three types of muscle found in humans; striated, smooth and cardiac muscle. He explains how actin and myosin interact to contract the sarcomere in a muscle. The sliding filament theory explains how ATP and calcium are used to contract the z disks. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 367095 Bozeman Science
Photosynthesis
 
12:27
Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into useable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 2178508 Bozeman Science
X Inactivation
 
06:23
Paul Andersen explains how X inactivation works in mammals. This process was first described by Mary Lyon. Each cell in a female will have on activated and one inactivated X chromosome. This explains why almost all calico cats are female. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 161916 Bozeman Science
Interstitial Fluid
 
04:54
Paul Andersen explains the importance and location of interstitial fluid. He describes both the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures that move fluid between the interstitial fluid and the capillary. He also explains the major function of the fluid for the movement of material into and out of the cell. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 361641 Bozeman Science
Operon
 
10:01
PhET Simulation Gene Machine: The Lac Operon http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gene-machine-lac-operon In this video Paul Andersen describes the elements of an operon. The promoter allows the RNA polymerase to transcribe the required genes. The operator and repressor regulate the expression of the genes by blocking the RNA polymerase. The genes for a specific task are all located in sequence so that they can all be transcribed at once. He starts be describing how the lac operon can be initiated to break down lactose. He then explains how the trp operon can be activated to create tryptophan. He ends with a simulation of the lac operon. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: "File:André Lwoff Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andr%C3%A9_Lwoff_nobel.jpg. kumar35885. Simple DNA for Illustrations, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. "File:François Jacob Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fran%C3%A7ois_Jacob_nobel.jpg. "File:Jacques Monod Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacques_Monod_nobel.jpg. "Gene Machine: The Lac Operon." PhET. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gene-machine-lac-operon.
Views: 618002 Bozeman Science
The Urinary System
 
06:32
In this video Paul Andersen gives an overview of the human urinary system. The system consist of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys excrete waste from the blood in urine. He explains how the nephron is responsible for filtration, secretion, and reabsorption of material in the blood. He details all of the elements of the nephron including; the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. Urine is transported from the kidney to the bladder for storage in the ureters. It then enters the environment through the urethra. The urinary system maintains homeostasis through hormonal control. Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: [1, J. M. i N. (2010). English: Urinary system. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urinary_system.svg EN DE PL, P. M. J. P. (2006). English: Structures of the kidney: Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:KidneyStructures_PioM.svg en:User:Markhamilton. (Unsure). Exquisite sample of urine produced after a long game of chess. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Weewee.JPG Fischer, A. by H. (2013). English: This image shows a cross section of a kidney. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kidney_Cross_Section.png Radons, B. (2012). English: A modern illustration of the basic physiology of a nephron within a kidney. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nephron_illustration.svg SIU SOM Histology CRR. (n.d.). Retrieved December 29, 2016, from http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/RN033b.htm Turbotorque. (2011). human urine in specimen container. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urine_sample.JPG
Views: 254045 Bozeman Science
Meselson-Stahl Experiment
 
04:21
Paul Andersen explains how the Meselson-Stahl experiment was used to prove that DNA copied itself through a semi-conservative process. They grew E. coli in a medium containing heavy nitrogen (N-15). They then added the E. coli to a medium containing regular nitrogen (N-14) and observed it over several generation. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 277124 Bozeman Science
Gene Regulation
 
10:06
031 - Gene Regulation Paul Andersen explains how genes are regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. He begins with a description of the lac and trp operon and how they are used by bacteria in both positive and negative response. He also explains the importance of transcription factors in eukaryotic gene expression. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Bioinformatik, English: Jawahar Swaminathan and MSD staff at the European Bioinformatics InstituteDeutsch: Jawahar Swaminathan und MSD Mitarbeiter am Europäischen Institut für BioinformatikPlattdüütsch: Jawahar Swaminathan un de Lüüd von MSD an dat Europääsche Institut för. English: Cartoon Representation of the Molecular Structure of Protein Registered with 2nvw Code., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. English: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/images/entry/2nvw600.png, displayed on http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/entry/2nvw/summary. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PDB_2nvw_EBI.jpg. DNA, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. "File:E Coli at 10000x, Original.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:E_coli_at_10000x,_original.jpg&oldid=478393073. "File:Glass of Milk on Tablecloth.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glass_of_milk_on_tablecloth.jpg. "File:Lac operon1.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lac_operon1.png. "File:Protein TBP PDB 1c9b.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Protein_TBP_PDB_1c9b.png. "File:Ribosome mRNA Translation En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_mRNA_translation_en.svg. Forluvoft. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Termination, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1161477 Bozeman Science
Proteins
 
09:16
Paul Andersen explains the structure and importance of proteins. He describes how proteins are created from amino acids connected by dehydration synthesis. He shows the importance of chemical properties in the R-groups of individual amino acids in the polypeptide. He explains the four levels of protein folding and gives you an opportunity to fold proteins of your own using the game Foldit: Download the video game foldit here: http://fold.it/portal/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 894682 Bozeman Science
Integumentary System
 
07:32
In this video Paul Andersen details the important structures and functions of the integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair and nails in humans. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Accountalive. English: Nail Anatomy (e.g. Fingernail). Labels in German., October 14, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nail_anatomy_de.svg. Basquetteur. English: Dumb Version without Legend for Reuse in Other Languages If Desired, January 30, 2009. Own work by uploader derived from fingernail label.jpg in English wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fingernail-Anatomia-externa-dumb2.png. Benutzer:Goodbye. Deutsch: Gruebchenbildung, April 4, 2006. Self-photographed. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gruebchenbildung.jpg. Bezrukov, Victor. Reflected Sadness, May 3, 2008. reflected sadness. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reflected_sadness.jpg. BruceBlaus. English: Dermal Circulation. See a Related Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0802_Skin_DermalCirculation.png. ———. English: Epidermis. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0353_Epidermis.png. ———. English: Lamellated Corpuscle. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0804_Skin_LamellatedCorpuscle.png. College, OpenStax. English: Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web Site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013., April 2, 2013. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:408_Connective_Tissue.jpg. en.wikipedia, Original uploader was D. Wu at. English: This Is Step VII Cut out from :Image:Gray2.png. The Original Copyright Is Duplicated Below., July 20, 2005. Transferred from en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Telophase.jpg. "File:Blackhair10.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 28, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blackhair10.jpg. "File:Blausen 0438 HairFollicleAnatomy 02.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0438_HairFollicleAnatomy_02.png. "File:Human Nail Anatomy.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_nail_anatomy.jpg. information, This file is lacking author. Fingernails2, December 8, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fingernails.JPG. r.granit. Animal and Plant Cell Cytokiness Diagram, April 3, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cytokinesis.png. User:Gruzd. Lizard Skin of Lacerta Agilis, June 22, 2007. Own work (own picture). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lacertae_skin.jpg. Vignoni, David. From GNOME Version of Nuvola. Not Included in the KDE PNG Version., December 6, 2005. http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gtk-media-rewind-ltr.svg.
Views: 491258 Bozeman Science
DNA Fingerprinting
 
06:10
Paul Andersen describes the process of DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling. He explains how variability in STRs can be used to identify individuals. He explains the importance of DNA fingerprinting in forensics and paternity cases. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 470995 Bozeman Science
Endosymbiosis
 
07:01
Paul Andersen explains how eukaryotic cells were formed through a process of endosymbiosis. He describes how aerobic bacteria became mitochondria and cyanobacteria became chloroplasts. He mentions an example of symbiosis that occurs today and mentions the importance of Dr. Lynn Margulis in the development of this modern theory. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 235239 Bozeman Science
The Endocrine System
 
13:47
Paul Andersen explains the major elements in the endocrine system. He explains how glands produce hormones which target cells. He differentiates between water soluble and lipid soluble hormones. He then describes the hormones and actions of ten glands; pineal, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, testes and ovaries. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1429284 Bozeman Science
Viruses
 
08:06
Life on Earth 003 - Viruses Paul Andersen describes the important characteristics of viruses. He starts with a brief description of origin theories. He then describes the two characteristics of all viruses; genetic information and protein coats. He also describes how some viruses use specialized envelopes to gain entry to their host cells. He also explains the lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 322558 Bozeman Science
Water Potential
 
09:42
In this video Paul Andersen defines water potential and explains how it can be calculated in a simple system. He explains how water can moved through osmosis and break down the two major parts of water potential (solute potential and pressure potential). He finishes the video with a sample calculation of solute potential. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: en.wikipedia, Michael Ströck at. English: 3D-model of a Sucrose Molecule, January 31, 2006. Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sucrose_molecule_3d_model.png. Flatabø, Photographed by Guttorm. Living Brown Slug on Painted Brick Wall. Picture Taken in Leikanger, Sogn Og Fjordane, Norway., May 3, 2005. Photograph taken with an Olympus Camedia C-70 Zoom digital camera. Metainformation edited with Irfanview, possibly cropped with jpegcrop. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brown_snail.jpg. Flickr, Dubravko Sorić SoraZG on. English: a Glass Salt Shaker with a Metal Top Photographed on a White Background, July 6, 2009. http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3793288383/in/photostream/. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salt_shaker_on_white_background.jpg. MJM, APN. English: A Spoon Slowly Drops Sugar into a Glass of Water in Order to Display the Procedure of Making a Solution., January 7, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spoon_Sugar_Solution_with_Glass.jpg. Poseidon Sculpture, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poseidon_sculpture_Copenhagen_2005.jpg. Salvà, Turgor pressure on plant cells diagram svg: LadyofHatsderivative work: Antoni. English: In Biology, Turgor Pressure or Turgidity Is the Pressure of the Cell Contents Against the Cell Wall, in Plant Cells, Determined by the Water Content of the Vacuole, Resulting from Osmotic Pressure., 8:40 (UTC). Turgor pressure on plant cells diagram.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turgor_pressure_on_plant_cells_diagram-ca.svg. work, Own. English: Structure of the Water Molecule (H2O), August 2008. Based in part on the public domain image Image:H2O (water molecule).jpg by Solkoll. Corrected by Plenz. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water_molecule.svg.
Views: 486236 Bozeman Science
The Brain
 
13:56
The Brain: Structure and Function In this video Paul Andersen explains the structures and functions of seventeen major parts of the brain. He begins with a quick discussion of brain evolution and ends with a review of the major parts presented inside the brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebrum. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Angelo.romano. SVG Drawing Representing a Number of Sports Icons: Ice Hockey, Athletcs, Basketball and Football (soccer), October 2, 2007. self-made with Inkscape, starting from a number of existing SVG drawings taken from the Wikimedia Commons (namely, Image:Basketball ball.svg, Image:Soccer ball.svg and vectorized versions of Image:Olympic pictogram Ice hockey.png and Image:Olympic pictogram Athletics.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:All_sports_drawing.svg. Bradley, M M, and P J Lang. "Measuring Emotion: The Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential." Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 25, no. 1 (March 1994): 49--59. caustic, lunar. Approximately 6 Weeks from Conception, I.e. 8 Weeks from LMP. Shot with 105 Mm Micro-NIKKOR Lens with 2 off Camera SB-800's. Specimen Is Submerged in Alcohol. This Is a Spontaneous (ie. Not a Termination) Abortion. It Was Extruded Intact with the Gestational Sac Surrounded by Developing Placental Tissue and Decidual Tissue. This Was Carefully Opened to Avoid Damaging the Embryo., January 23, 2009. Embryo. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Embryo_-_Approximately_8_weeks_estimated_gestational_age.jpg. College, OpenStax. Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web Site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1810_Major_Pituitary_Hormones.jpg. Dobschütz, Sigismund von. Deutsch: Welpe, May 27, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Welpe_2011.JPG. "File:1421 Sensory Homunculus.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1421_Sensory_Homunculus.jpg. "File:Animal Diversity.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_diversity.png. "File:Basal Ganglia Circuits.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, January 27, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Basal_ganglia_circuits.svg&oldid=469762706. "File:Bilaterian-Plan.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bilaterian-plan.svg. "File:Corpus Callosum.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corpus_callosum.png. "File:EmbryonicBrain.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EmbryonicBrain.svg. "File:Lobes of the Brain NL.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg. "File:Skull and Brain Normal Human.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skull_and_brain_normal_human.svg. "File:Tiburón.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tibur%C3%B3n.jpg. GerryShaw. English: Cortical Neuron Stained with Antibody to Neurofilament Subunit NF-L in Green. In Red Are Neuronal Stem Cells Stained with Antibody to Alpha-Internexin. Image Created Using Antibodies from EnCor Biotechnology Inc., February 4, 2000. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_in_tissue_culture.jpg. Government, U. S. The Seal of the President of the United States. The Blazon Is Defined in Executive Order 10860 As:, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Extracted from PDF version of Federal Assistance for Impacted Communities guide, archived here, with some small cleanups. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US-President-Seal.svg. Griffiths, Si. English: Brick Wall, March 12, 2005. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brick_Wall.jpg. Hagens, Wouter. English: Kitten about 2 Months Old, December 3, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20131203_kitten_B.jpg. Häggström, Mikael. English: Organ Adapted for Use in Häggström Diagrams, January 16, 2008. Image:Gray970.png (Public domain license). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heart_and_lung.gif. illustrator, Patrick J. Lynch, medical. Brain Human Sagittal Section, December 23, 2006. Patrick J. Lynch, medical illustrator.
Views: 2344103 Bozeman Science
The Digestive System
 
09:38
Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of feeding methods. He then details all of the major parts within the human digestive system. This tour starts in the mouth, move down the esophagus, through the stomach, small investing, colon and rectum. He explains how all of the major macromolecules are digested and absorbed by the body. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 545936 Bozeman Science
What is Cancer?
 
06:55
In this video Paul Andersen answers the very simple question: What is cancer? He explains how damage to the DNA can create uncontrolled cell growth. He explains how malignant tumors can spread the disease throughout the body and gives possible treatments. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Asd.and.Rizzo. English: Cancer Cells Photographed by Camera Attached to Microscope in Time-Lapse Manner., July 23, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TimeLapseMicroscopyCancerCells.gif. BruceBlaus. English: Epidermis. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0353_Epidermis.png. "File:Thorax Pa Peripheres Bronchialcarcinom Li OF Markiert.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 23, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thorax_pa_peripheres_Bronchialcarcinom_li_OF_markiert.jpg. Häggström, Mikael. English: Image for Use in the Human Body Diagrams Project. To Discuss Image, Please See Talk:Human Body Diagrams, May 25, 2011. All used images are in public domain. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Man_shadow_with_organs.png. Meyer, D. Glivec (Gleevec) Film Tablet Made by Novartis., July 2, 2006. Photo made by myself. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glivec_tablet.jpg. Sponk, Difference_DNA_RNA-EN svg: *Difference_DNA_RNA-DE svg: English: DNA in Eukaryote Cell, August 5, 2012. This file was derived from: Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg Chromosome.svg Animal_cell_structure_en.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eukaryote_DNA.svg.
Views: 120575 Bozeman Science
Mitosis
 
13:35
Paul Andersen describes the process of mitosis. He begins by discussing the importance of the cell cycle in development, regeneration, asexual reproduction and wound healing. He differentiates between haploid and diploid cells and describes the structure of the chromosome. He then moves through all the phases of mitosis; interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 719320 Bozeman Science
Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping
 
09:50
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the frequency of recombination between linked genes can be used to determine the relative location of genes on a chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Strutevant used the fruit fly to develop a theory of chromosomal inheritance and discover crossing over. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. "FlyBase," n.d. http://flybase.org/reports/FBgn0003975.html. spax89. Illustration of a Tobacco Pipe, 2009. Extracted from Media:Blason de la ville de Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie (30).svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco_pipe.svg.
Views: 616327 Bozeman Science
Enzymes
 
11:52
048 - Enzymes Paul Andersen explains how enzymes are used to break down substrates. The correct shape of the active site allows a key/lock fit between the enzyme and the substrate. The enzyme catalase is used to break down hydrogen peroxide. The importance of cofactors and coenzymes is emphasized. Competitive and allosteric inhibition is also included. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1248728 Bozeman Science
What are Chromosomes?
 
05:35
In this video Paul Andersen answers this question about chromosomes. He explains how the base pairs of DNA form genes which are organized into the chromosomes of the overall genome. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: CSc, Doc RnDr Josef Reischig. English: Human Karyotype: Karyotype Human 45,XY t1-17 (mosaic). Optical Microscopy Technique: Negative Phase Contrast. Magnification: 6000x (for Picture Width 26 Cm ~ A4 Format)., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Author's archive. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_karyotype_(263_19)_Karyotype_Human_45,XY_t1-17_(mosaic).jpg. File:Mars-Male-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Blue.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars-male-symbol-pseudo-3D-blue.svg. File:Venus-Female-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Pink.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venus-female-symbol-pseudo-3D-pink.svg. KES47, File:Chromosome-es svg: English: Graphic Decomposition of a Chromosome (found in the Cell Nucleus), to the Bases Pair of the DNA., July 10, 2010. File:Chromosome-es.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosome_en.svg. LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal. English: A Diagram of a Typical Prokaryotic Cell. This Diagram, Made in Adobe Illustrator, Is an Improved Version of a Similar Diagram, Image:Prokaryote Cell Diagram.svg, Which Was Also Made by LadyofHats. Besides General Appearance Changes, This Version Adds Plasmids and Pili, and Notes That DNA Is Circular., March 2, 2008. Own work (Source: Typical prokaryotic cell, Chapter 4: Mutagenicity of alkyl N-acetoxybenzohydroxamates, Concept 1: Common Features of All Cells, Cells - Structure and Function). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg. Szczepan1990, MesserWoland and. Azərbaycanca: Tipik Heyvan Hüceyrəsinin Qurluş Sxemi., October 15, 2006. Own work (Inkscape created). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Biological_cell.svg.
Views: 256837 Bozeman Science
The Action Potential
 
14:07
In this video Paul Andersen details the action potential in neurons. The resting potential of a neuron (-70mV) is maintained through differences in concentration and permeability of Na, K, and Cl ions. A graded potential is created as neurotransmitters from adjacent cells that are either excitatory or inhibitory. If the neuron reaches the threshold of -55mV an opening of voltage-gated sodium channels triggers an action potential that may affect other connected neurons. PhET neuron simulation - https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/neuron Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: 1280px-Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg.png (1280×960). (n.d.). Retrieved December 13, 2016, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg/1280px-Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg.png Dirgxtreme. (2015). English: reflex loop signal. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reflex_arc_signal.jpg Helixitta. (2015). Українська: Переклад англійською File:Propagation of action potential along myelinated nerve fiber.png. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Propagation_of_action_potential_along_myelinated_nerve_fiber_en.svg holder, L. (2011). English: A 9V, AA, AAA, AAAA battery in close proximity for comparisisation porpoises. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AAAA_AAA_AA_9V_comparison-1.jpg Indolences. (2007). Image:Traffic lights 3 states.png. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Traffic_lights_3_states.svg Jana, D. (2016). English: Myelinated neurons are faster than unmyelinated neurons because of Saltatory motion. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saltatory_Conduction.gif LadyofHats. (2007). English: Complete neuron cell diagram. Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg OpenStax. (2016a). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1221_Action_Potential.jpg OpenStax. (2016b). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1224_Post_Synaptic_Potential_Summation.jpg OpenStax. (2016c). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1224_Post_Synaptic_Potential_Summation.jpg section, S. user in the "File history". (See the date of the upload in the “File history” section.). This image (basic representation of banana) has been created as part of the WikiVoc Project and released under Public Domain license. These illustrations can be used for various purposes, such as language dictionaries, flash cards, etc. Other such images can be found in the WikiVoc images category. Anyone can assist us in this project, so please help us out. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WikiVoc-banana.svg Wikipedia, Q. J. at E. (2009). English: Recreated :File:Neuron-no labels2.png in Inkscape and hand-tuned to reduce filesize. Created by Quasar (talk) 19:59, 11 August 2009 (UTC). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg
Views: 365622 Bozeman Science
Cell Communication
 
10:35
037 - Cell Communication Paul Andersen discusses cell communication. He begins by explaining how he communicates with other individuals using various forms of electronic communication. He them explains how cells communicate when the distance between them is big, small, and zero. He explains how antigen presenting cells pass information on antigen structure by touching in the immune response. He explains how neurotransmitters are used to transfer and manipulate nerve signals. And he finally explains how the endocrine system sends messages throughout the body. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Cartoon Virus Clip Art, n.d. http://www.clker.com/clipart-cartoon-virus.html. cs, Endocrine_growth_regulation svg: Mikael Häggströmderivative work: Icewalker. Čeština: Hlavní Cesta Endokrinní Regulace Růstu, Mediovaná Růstovým Hormonem a IGF-1, 14:28 (UTC). Endocrine_growth_regulation.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Endocrine_growth_regulation_cs.svg. Depot, Disk. English: Post-It Note with White Background. (Super-Sticky Genuine Original 3M Version!), (First publication). Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Post-it-note-white-bg.jpg. "File:Beta-Endorphin.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beta-endorphin.png. "File:Facebook.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Facebook.svg. "File:Lymphocyte Activation Simple.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lymphocyte_activation_simple.png. "File:Neuron Hand-Tuned.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg. "File:Robert Wadlow.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_Wadlow.jpg&oldid=519347892. "File:Synapse diag1.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Synapse_diag1.svg. Google. English: Gmail Logo, May 9, 2011. Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gmail_logo.png. "Growth Hormone." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Growth_hormone&oldid=585182562. US, Ed Costello from Brooklyn, NY. Paula Radcliffe, Winner of the 2007 New York City Marathon, Photographed at Mile 14., November 4, 2007. Cropped from File:Paula Radcliffe 2007 New York marathon.jpg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paula_Brooklyn_NYCM_2007_cropped.jpg.
Views: 380527 Bozeman Science
Cell Membranes
 
11:04
015 - Cell Membranes Paul Andersen explains how cells are selectively permeable with the help of their cell membrane. The main constituents of the cell membrane, including cholesterol, glycolipids, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and proteins are included. The fluid mosaic model is also illustrated. The cell wall in plants, bacteria, and fungi is also discussed. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 646019 Bozeman Science
Mass Spectrometry
 
08:20
009 - Mass Spectrometry In this video Paul Andersen explains how a spectrometer was used to identify the presence of isotopes. This modified Dalton's original atomic theory because atoms of the same element had different masses. The functional parts of a mass spectrometer are detailed including the ionizer, mass analyzer and the detector. A simulation of Chlorine isotopes along with an average atomic mass calculation is included. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:John Dalton by Charles Turner.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_Dalton_by_Charles_Turner.jpg. "File:Myoglobin.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 5, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Myoglobin.png. "File:Peptide-Figure-Revised.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 5, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peptide-Figure-Revised.png. File:WidmoMS.gif, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WidmoMS.gif.
Views: 249233 Bozeman Science
Anaerobic Respiration
 
08:00
Paul Andersen explains the process of anaerobic respiration. This process involves glycolysis and fermentation and allows organisms to survive without oxygen. Lactic acid fermentation is used in animals and bacteria and uses lactate as an electron acceptor. Alcoholic fermentation used ethyl alcohol as an electron acceptor. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: Blackwell, T. J. English: A Group of Visitors Observes Fermentation Vats Whilst on an Official Tour of the Black Sheep Brewery Facilities in Masham, Yorkshire. The Original High Resolution Copy of This Photograph Can Be Found Online in This Set of Images., July 17, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black_Sheep_Brewery_Tour.jpg. "File:MC Drei-Finger-Faultier.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MC_Drei-Finger-Faultier.jpg&oldid=465343771. "File:MC Drei-Finger-Faultier.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MC_Drei-Finger-Faultier.jpg&oldid=465343771. "File:Obstjoghurt01.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Obstjoghurt01.jpg. "File:Paulaner.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paulaner.jpg. "File:Red Wine Glass.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 26, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_Wine_Glass.jpg&oldid=537235210. "File:S Cerevisiae Under DIC Microscopy.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:S_cerevisiae_under_DIC_microscopy.jpg. LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal. Español: o Diagrama Mostra Uma Secção de Uma Mitocôndria de Célula Eucariótica. Mitocôndrias São Organelas Envolvidas Por Membranas, Distribuídas No Citosol Da Maioria Das Células Eucarióticas. Sua Função Principal é a Conversão de Um Potencial de Energia de Moléculas de Alimento Em ATP., May 2, 2006. the diagram i made myself using adobe illustrator. as a source for the information i used the diagrams found here:[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_bn.svg.
Views: 317294 Bozeman Science
DNA and RNA - Part 2
 
10:00
027 - DNA and RNA - Part 2 Paul Andersen continues his description of DNA and RNA. He begins with the structure of DNA and RNA and moves into the process of DNA Replication. He also describes the central dogma of biology explaining how DNA is transcribed to mRNA and is finally translated into proteins. He also introduces genetic engineering and explains how transformation is used to create insulin. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:American Beaver.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:American_Beaver.jpg. "File:Beaverlodge.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beaverlodge.JPG. "File:Biston.betularia.7200.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biston.betularia.7200.jpg. "File:Biston.betularia.f.carbonaria.7209.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biston.betularia.f.carbonaria.7209.jpg. "File:DNA Replication En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_replication_en.svg. "File:Inzulín.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inzul%C3%ADn.jpg. "File:Plasmid Replication (english).svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plasmid_replication_(english).svg. "File:Ribosome mRNA Translation En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_mRNA_translation_en.svg. "File:Safflower.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Safflower.jpg. Forluvoft. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Initiation, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_initiation1.svg. ———. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Termination, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg. ———. Simple Transcription Elongation, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_elongation1.svg. Sponk. Deutsch: Verknüpfung Der Nukleinbasen C, G, A Und U Mit Dem Ribosephosphat-Rückgrat Der RNA, March 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RNA-Nucleobases.svg. Sponk, Difference_DNA_RNA-DE svg: Deutsch: Gegenüberstellung Eines RNA-Strangs Und Eines DNA-Doppelstrangs Mit Darstellung Der Jeweiligen Nukleobasen, 04:53 (UTC). Deutsch: verwendete Bilder... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 347501 Bozeman Science
Transport Across Cell Membranes
 
13:58
016 - Transport Across Cell Membranes Paul Andersen describes how cells move materials across the cell membrane. All movement can be classified as passive or active. Passive transport, like diffusion, requires no energy as particles move along their gradient. Active transport requires additional energy as particles move against their gradient. Specific examples, like GLUT and the Na/K pump are included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Alveolus Diagram.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alveolus_diagram.svg. "File:Cell Nucleus.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cell_nucleus.jpg&oldid=468409681. "File:Diffusion (1).png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Diffusion_(1).png. "File:Osmose En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Osmose_en.svg. "File:Osmotic Pressure on Blood Cells Diagram.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Osmotic_pressure_on_blood_cells_diagram.svg&oldid=534015264. "File:Phospholipids Aqueous Solution Structures.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phospholipids_aqueous_solution_structures.svg. "File:Scheme Facilitated Diffusion in Cell Membrane-En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scheme_facilitated_diffusion_in_cell_membrane-en.svg. "File:Scheme Sodium-Potassium Pump-En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scheme_sodium-potassium_pump-en.svg. "File:Synapse diag1.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Synapse_diag1.svg. Flatabø, Photographed by Guttorm. Living Brown Slug on Painted Brick Wall. Picture Taken in Leikanger, Sogn Og Fjordane, Norway., May 3, 2005. Photograph taken with an Olympus Camedia C-70 Zoom digital camera. Metainformation edited with Irfanview, possibly cropped with jpegcrop. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brown_snail.jpg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 642252 Bozeman Science
A Tour of the Cell
 
14:17
Paul Andersen takes you on a tour of the cell. He starts by explaining the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. He also explains why cells are small but not infinitely small. He also explains how the organelles work together in a similar fashion. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 2437468 Bozeman Science
Student's t-test
 
10:11
Excel file: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/561402/TTEST.xls In this video Paul Andersen explains how to run the student's t-test on a set of data. He starts by explaining conceptually how a t-value can be used to determine the statistical difference between two samples. He then shows you how to use a t-test to test the null hypothesis. He finally gives you a separate data set that can be used to practice running the test. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: 1.3.6.7.2. Critical Values of the Student’s-t Distribution. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda3672.htm File:Hordeum-barley.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hordeum-barley.jpg Keinänen, S. (2005). English: Guinness for strenght. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guinness.jpg Kirton, L. (2007). English: Footpath through barley field. A well defined and well used footpath through the fields at Nuthall. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Footpath_through_barley_field_-_geograph.org.uk_-_451384.jpg pl.wikipedia, U. W. on. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: William Sealy Gosset, known as “Student”, British statistician. Picture taken in 1908. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Sealy_Gosset.jpg The T-Test. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php
Views: 427010 Bozeman Science
Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis
 
13:39
028 - Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Paul Andersen explains how the cell cycle is used to create new cells. The creation of identical diploid daughter cells, through mitosis, is described. The creation of unique haploid daughter cells, through meiosis is also described. The importance of cyclin and cyclin dependent kinases to regulate the cell cycle is included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Cell Cycle 2-2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_Cycle_2-2.svg. "File:Cyclin Expression.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cyclin_Expression.svg. "File:Major Events in Mitosis.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Major_events_in_mitosis.svg. "File:Meiosis Overview.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meiosis_Overview.svg. File:Schmetaphase.png, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Schmetaphase.png. "File:Tinción Hematoxilina-Eosina.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tinci%C3%B3n_hematoxilina-eosina.jpg. goat, Electric. English: Simplified Illustration Created by Electric Goat. Homologous Chromosomes in Mitosis (upper) and Meiosis (bottom)., March 24, 2005. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosomes_in_mitosis_and_meiosis.png. User:Davepape. Desert Grassland Whiptail Lizard (w:Cnemidophorus Uniparens), at the w:Buffalo Zoo, June 16, 2006. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cnemidophorus_uniparens_(Buffalo_Zoo).jpg. Xander89. An Hourglass, May 9, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hourglass_modern.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 906467 Bozeman Science
Chi-squared Test
 
11:53
Paul Andersen shows you how to calculate the ch-squared value to test your null hypothesis. He explains the importance of the critical value and defines the degrees of freedom. He also leaves you with a problem related to the animal behavior lab. This analysis is required in the AP Biology classroom. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1336585 Bozeman Science
Phases of Mitosis
 
10:42
In this video Paul Andersen explains the importance of mitosis and details the major steps in the cell cycle. He explains the importance of Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophases, and Cytokinesis. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: al, George von Dassow et. English: Time-Lapse Microscopy Video of Untreated 16-Cell Purple Urchin Embryo with EMTB-3G (microtubules) in Shown Cyan and mC-H2B (chromatin) in Yellow., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.cellimagelibrary.org/images/15792. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Time-lapse_video_of_16-cell_purple_urchin_embryo,_CIL15792.ogv. "File:Cell Cycle 2-2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 5, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_Cycle_2-2.svg. García, Luis Fernández. English: Meristem in the Apex of Onion Root, March 25, 2007. Luis Fernández García. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meristemo_apical_1.jpg. Kelvinsong. English: The Prometaphase Stage of Mitosis. Cells Extracted from My Cell Cycle Diagram., December 9, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prometaphase.svg. ———. English: The Prophase Stage of Mitosis. Cells Extracted from My Cell Cycle Diagram., December 9, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prophase.svg. Manske, Magnus. English: Different Levels of DNA Condensation. (1) Single DNA Strand. (2) Chromatin Strand (DNA with Histones). (3) Chromatin during Interphase with Centromere. (4) Condensed Chromatin during Prophase. (Two Copies of the DNA Molecule Are Now Present) (5) Chromosome during Metaphase., October 21, 2002. Nupedia, then en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatin_chromosome.png.
Views: 818515 Bozeman Science
Using Gibbs Free Energy
 
07:57
059 - Using Gibbs Free Energy In this video Paul Andersen explains how you can use the Gibbs Free Energy equation to determine if a process is spontaneous or not spontaneous. If the ΔG is less than zero the process is spontaneous. If the ΔG is greater than zero the process is not spontaneous. If the ΔG is equal to zero the process is at equilibrium. The ΔH, ΔS, and T are all used to calculate ΔG. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Hex ice.GIF." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hex_ice.GIF. "File:Josiah Willard Gibbs -from MMS-.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Josiah_Willard_Gibbs_-from_MMS-.jpg. "File:ThermiteReaction.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ThermiteReaction.jpg&oldid=543297076. Gkai. English: Erlenmeyer Flask, May 23, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erlenmeyer-flask.svg. Haacken, User: Herbert. English: Instant Cold Pack, March 15, 2012. Own work: Herbert Haacken. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-03-15_Ruck-Zuck-Pack_K%C3%A4lte_Katalog_Small.gif. Splettstoesser, Thomas. Hydrogen Bonds in Liquid Water Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Tip3P Water Model with CHARMM Force Field), June 25, 2007. self-made with open source visualization software PyMol. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liquid_water_hydrogen_bond.png.
Views: 317268 Bozeman Science
Bernoulli's Equation
 
10:12
088 - Bernoulli’s Equation In the video Paul Andersen explains how Bernoulli’s Equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid. The equation describes the pressure energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy of a fluid at a single point. A sample problem illustrating the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure energy decreases. A discussion and application of the continuity equation is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: AtomicRED. English: An Animated Example of the 12-6 Curveball Pitch in Baseball, June 29, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12-6_Curveball.gif. Pilsak, Walter J. Deutsch: Nagel, May 21, 2004. German Wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nails.jpg. “Port.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, February 11, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Port&oldid=646056373. Robinson, Paul. Milk Carton, October 5, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nuvola_milk_carton.svg.
Views: 319320 Bozeman Science
Cellular Organelles
 
09:38
043 - Cellular Organelles Paul Andersen describes the structure and function of the major organelles in a eukaryotic cell. The endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and golgi complex produce and store proteins in the cell. Lysosomes dissolve broken and invasive material. Vacuole store material in plant cells. Mitochondria produce ATP through cellular respiration and chloroplasts use the energy of the sun to produce sugars. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: 24Adrianus, Plant_cell_structure_svg_vacuole svg: Mariana Ruiz LadyofHats, labels by Dake modified by smartsederivative work: Plant_cell_structure Labelling Only the Vacuole Bahasa Indonesia: Membran Vakuola Atau Tonoplas Pada Dinding Sel Tumbuhan, 15:04 (UTC). Plant_cell_structure_svg_vacuole.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plant_cell_structure_svg_vacuole_(id).jpg. "File:10 Small Subunit.gif." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:10_small_subunit.gif. "File:Animal Mitochondrion Diagram En (edit).svg." Simple English Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_en_(edit).svg. "File:Biological Cell Vacuole.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biological_cell_vacuole.svg. "File:Camillo Golgi Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Camillo_Golgi_nobel.jpg. "File:Clara Cell Lung - TEM.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clara_cell_lung_-_TEM.jpg. "File:Nucleus ER Golgi.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nucleus_ER_golgi.svg. "File:Phospholipids Aqueous Solution Structures.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phospholipids_aqueous_solution_structures.svg. "File:Plagiomnium Affine Laminazellen.jpeg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plagiomnium_affine_laminazellen.jpeg. Mayfield1,2*, Andrea L. Manuell1, 2, Joel Quispe1,3, Stephen P. Chloroplast Ribosome + Predicted Location of Chloroplast-Unique Structures and Their Proximity to Functionally Important Regions of the Small Ribosomal Subunit, August 2007. Plos Biology - http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0050209 . doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050209. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chloroplast_ribosome.jpg. Smartse, Chloroplast-new jpg: User:Ollinderivative work: A Vectorised Version of File:Chloroplast-New.jpg. A Diagram Showing the Simple Structure of a Chloroplast, 13:52 (UTC). Chloroplast-new.jpg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chloroplast_diagram.svg. The Inner Life of the Cell, 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJyUtbn0O5Y&feature=youtube_gdata_player.
Views: 278390 Bozeman Science
Entropy
 
07:05
057 - Entropy In this video Paul Andersen explains that entropy is simply the dispersion of matter or energy. He begins with a series of video that show the natural direction of processes. According to the second law of thermodynamics the entropy may never decrease in a closed system. In irreversible processes the entropy will increase over time. The entropy will increase as volume increases, phases change, temperature increases and as the moles of products increases. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: AJ. A Red Balloon on a Ribbon, July 18, 2008. Open clip Art Library image's page. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_toy_balloon.svg. Ebaychatter0. English: Sport Car, October 3, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orange_sport_car.svg. "File:Dinitrogen-Tetroxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dinitrogen-tetroxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Nitrogen-Dioxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen-dioxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Oxygen Molecule.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen_molecule.png. "File:Water-3D-Balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water-3D-balls.png. Forluvoft. Simple Diagram of Double-Stranded DNA, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_simple2.svg. penubag, F. l a n k e r. English: Nomenclature of the Phase Changes of a System in English. This Image Is Not Drawn to Scale, Meaning There Is No Association between Location and the Enthalpy of the State of Matter., October 30, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Phase_change_-_en.svg. Sharayanan. English : Depicts the Main Idea behind the Kinetic Theory of Gases — That Is, Gases Are Made of Molecules Whose Permanent Hits on the Walls of the Container Is Perceived as Pressure, and Whose Excitement Is Related to Temperature., August 8, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kinetic_theory_of_gases.svg. User:Forrestjunky, adaption of source-image by. Svg Tree Image, Based on Image:Broccoli.svg by user:Dvortygirl., March 16, 2008. Image:Broccoli.svg by Dvortigirl, converted to svg by Armada44. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Broccoli-tree.svg.
Views: 204185 Bozeman Science
Chemical Bonds: Covalent vs. Ionic
 
08:57
Mr. Andersen shows you how to determine if a bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionc. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 606116 Bozeman Science
Gibbs Free Energy
 
13:00
Paul Andersen attempts to explain Gibbs Free Energy. He begins by using three spontaneous reactions to explain how a change in enthalpy, entropy and temperature can affect the free energy of a system. He then applies this concept to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 568546 Bozeman Science
Diploid vs. Haploid Cells
 
08:31
In this video Paul Andersen explains the difference between diploid and haploid cells. He starts with a brief description of the central dogma and how genes code for proteins. He then uses the phenotype of red hair to explain that humans are diploid creatures. He discriminates between diploid somatic cells and haploid sex cells. He finishes with a brief description of different life cycles dominated by haploid and diploid individuals. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: Brazil, Gilberto Santa Rosa from Rio de Janeiro. English: A False-colour Image of Human Spermatozoa (sperm Cells)., November 8, 2005. be_sperm. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm-20051108.jpg. en.wikipedia, Original uploader was 718 Bot at. English: This Image Was Copied from Wikipedia:en. The Original Description Was:, April 6, 2009. Transferred from en.wikipedia; transfer was stated to be made by User:Vojtech.dostal. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sky_spectral_karyotype.png. "File:DAPIMitoTrackerRedAlexaFluor488BPAE.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DAPIMitoTrackerRedAlexaFluor488BPAE.jpg. "File:EscherichiaColi NIAID.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg. "File:Gray3.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray3.png. "File:Haploid Vs Diploid.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Haploid_vs_diploid.svg. "File:MarchantiophytaSp.NonDéterminéeFL3.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MarchantiophytaSp.NonD%C3%A9termin%C3%A9eFL3.jpg. "File:Pinus Densiflora Kumgangsan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pinus_densiflora_Kumgangsan.jpg. "File:Rupert Grint.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rupert_Grint.jpg. "File:Sperm-egg.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm-egg.jpg. İnfoCan, MRNA_structure png: Original uploader was TransControl at en wikipediaderivative work: English: Diagramatic Structure of a Typical Human Protein Coding mRNA Including the Untranslated Regions (UTRs).It Is Drawn Approximately to Scale. The Cap Is Only One Modified Base, Average 5' UTR Length 170, 3' UTR 700, 16:31 (UTC). MRNA_structure.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MRNA_structure-tr.png. Leevclarke, Gender_symbols_side_by_side svg: *derivative work: Català: Símbol Femení. Creat Per Gustavb., 10:53 (UTC). This file was derived from: Gender_symbols_side_by_side.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gender_symbols_side_by_side_solid.svg. Mysid. English: The Human Chromosome 1., January 3, 2007. Made by Mysid, based on http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=1. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosome_1.svg. Solarist, Biological_cell svg: MesserWoland and Szczepan1990derivative work: English: Diagram of a Typical Animal Cell. Organelles Are Labelled as Follows: # Nucleolus # Nucleus # Ribosome # Vesicle # Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum # Golgi Apparatus (or "Golgi Body") # Cytoskeleton # Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum # Mitochondrion # Vacuole # Cytosol # Lysosome # Centriole, 17:30 (UTC). Biological_cell.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:P_Cell.svg. ———. English: Diagram of a Typical Animal Cell. Organelles Are Labelled as Follows: # Nucleolus # Nucleus # Ribosome # Vesicle # Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum # Golgi Apparatus (or "Golgi Body") # Cytoskeleton # Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum # Mitochondrion # Vacuole # Cytosol # Lysosome # Centriole, 17:30 (UTC). Biological_cell.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:P_Cell.svg. Splettstoesser, Thomas. Cartoon Representation of Myoglobin (blue) with Heme Group (orange), July 10, 2006. own work based in PDB structure 1MBO, rendered with PyMol (www.pymol.org). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myoglobin_and_heme.png. Ungerer, Bernhard. English: 3D Render of a Male Skeleton with Body Shape in Three Views. Resolution: 1600 x 1200 Px, 150 Dpi., June 22, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:3D_Male_Skeleton_Anatomy.png.
Views: 205540 Bozeman Science

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