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"Includes animation of cells, cellular structure, circulatory and respiratory systems." Silent.
Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video.
Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
The human lungs are the organs of respiration in humans. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. The right lung consists of three lobes while the left lung is slightly smaller consisting of only two lobes (the left lung has a "cardiac notch" allowing space for the heart within the chest). Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli, having a total surface area of about 70 square metres (750 sq ft) (8,4 x 8,4 m) in adults — roughly the same area as one side of a tennis court. Furthermore, if all of the capillaries that surround the alveoli were unwound and laid end to end, they would extend for about 992 kilometres (616 mi). Each lung weighs 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb), therefore making the entire organ about 2.3 kilograms (5.1 lb).
The trachea divides into two bronchi (one for each side) at the level of T4. This junction is also known as the carina. The conducting zone contains the trachea, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the terminal bronchioles The respiratory zone contains the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts, and the alveoli. The conducting zone and the respiratory stuffers (but not the alveoli) are made up of airways. The conducting zone has no gas exchange with the blood, and is reinforced with cartilage in order to hold open the airways. The conducting zone warms the air to 37 °C (99 °F) and humidifies the air. It also cleanses the air by removing particles via cilia located on the walls of all the passageways. The lungs are surrounded by the rib cage. The respiratory zone is the site of gas exchange with blood.
- The sympathetic nervous system via noradrenaline acting on the beta receptors causes bronchodilation.
- The parasympathetic nervous system via acetylcholine, which acts on the M-3 muscarinic receptors, maintains the resting tone of the bronchiolar smooth muscle. This action is related, although considered distinct from bronchoconstriction.
- Many other non-autonomic nervous and biochemical stimuli, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, are also involved in the regulation process.
The pleural cavity is the potential space between the parietal pleura, lining the inner wall of the thoracic cage, and the visceral pleura lining the lungs.
The lung parenchyma is strictly used to refer solely to alveolar tissue with respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles. However, it often includes any form of lung tissue, also including bronchioles, bronchi, blood vessels and lung interstitium...
Modification of substances
The lungs convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II. In addition, they remove several blood-borne substances, e.g. PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α, leukotrienes, serotonin, bradykinin...