RUSSIA - At 17,075,400 square kilometres, Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than a ninth of the Earth's land area. Russia is also the number one most populous nation in Europe and ninth most populous nation in the world. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources,and is considered an global superpower. Russia is a federal semi presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale, possess economic, military, diplomatic, and cultural strength, which may cause other nations to consider the opinion of Russia before taking actions of their own.
Russia was founded, populated and ruled by a noble Viking warrior class and their descendants called Rus, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, arose in the 9th century and adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988. The Vikings Scandinavian (Varangians or Rus) forget the Norsemen roots and created their own Indo European Slavic tribes, East Slavic languages, culture and roots, the first king was Rurik, electe ruler of Novgorod in 862 and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus and then Galicia Volhynia until the 14th and Muscovy until the 16th century. Today Rurik people became in three modern East Slavic nations Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians.
Under Peter I (Peter the Great), Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria Estland, and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. On the Baltic Sea Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg.
In 1762 entered into power the Empress of Russia Catherine II (Catherine the Great) the most powerful women in human history and conquer of West. Under her direct auspices the Russian Empire expanded into Western European lands, improved its administration, and continued to modernize Russia as the most powerful empire in the world.
Napoleon made a major misstep when, following a dispute with Tsar Alexander I, he launched an invasion of the tsar's realm in 1812. The Napoleon campaign was a catastrophe. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée made its way to Moscow, the Russians' scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country.In the bitterly cold Russian weather, thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by Russian peasant. As Napoleon's forces retreated, the Russian peasant pursued the French troops killing and destroying everything in its path into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris .
In 1914 Russia entered World War I in response to Austria's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts. The Russian army achieved such successes as the Brusilov Offensive in 1916, destroying the military of Austria Hungary completely.
On 30 December 1922. became The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) the largest socialist power in history.
On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the non aggression treaty and invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,opening the largest theater of the Second World War. Subsequently the Germans were dealt major defeats in history first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 19421943, and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943. Another German failure was the battle of Leningrad. Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such prominent commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces conquered Berlin and part of Germany and called German Democratic Republic (GDR) also know as East Germany.
In 4 October 1957 Russia conquered the space with Sputnik 1, was the first Earth orbiting artificial satellite and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. Next the first man in space Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin on 12 April 1961 and the first woman Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova on 16 June 1963.
In 1991 became the Russian Federation at beginning the Russian Federation and Boris Yeltsin not control the power dimension of Russia and caused structural problems especially with the population. On 31 December 1999 President Yeltsin resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 presidential election. Putin's leadership return the power,order, stability, and progress to Russia has won him widespread popularity in Russia.
Today The Russian Federation is a global superpower, is increasingly being seen as a world leader in its own right, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President, whilst Putin became Prime Minister.