Types of Chemical BondsRadio electronics professionals and beginners are used to think of an electron as of a certain sphere, or even a part of an electronic device. But as a physical notion, the electron has a much deeper meaning. It is in fact an integral part and component of the matter. Our world consists of chemical bonds. Let's look into the types of chemical bonding out there in more detail. A chemical bond occurs between atoms, which results in formation of molecules, and therefore of substances surrounding us. There exist three types of chemical bonds: an ionic bond, a covalent bond and a metallic bond. A hydrogen bond stands a little aside - it is not exactly chemical, but it does significantly impact the structure of many substances. And now let's discuss each of these bonding types.The ionic bond is formed in such a way that the substances that easily give and except outer shell valence electrons are actually prone to forming such bond. For instance, the sodium atom easily gives away its outer shell valence electron, whereas the chlorine atom readily accepts an electron onto its outer orbital in order to fill it to a certain extent. When they meet, the sodium and the chlorine atoms form such bond, with the electron leaving the sodium atom to join the orbital of the chlorine atom. Thus, sodium becomes positively charged, since one of the electrons is missing, whereas the chlorine atom is negatively charged due to the additional electron. The resulting Coulomb force forms the ionic bond. The sodium and chlorine atoms in themselves are very active, but when they form an ionic bond, they turn into the common salt. The next kind of chemical bonding is the covalent bond. This bonding is one of the fundamental ones in organic chemistry, and in life in general. Covalent bonding can be found in carbonic chains, but they are of course not the only ones that can form covalent bonds. Another covalent bond-based widespread substance that we use in our everyday life is water. In covalent bonding the outer shell electron is not entirely passed from one atom to the other. Instead we can observe a so-called junction. The electrons in such kind of bonding are passed from one atom to the other on a constant basis and at high frequencies. As a result, such electrons are to some extent common, and to some extent divided. The formed electrical bonds are rather strong, which results in formation of a substance. For example, in water the outer shell hydrogen electron joins the outer shell electrons of oxygen and in this way such bond is formed.The third kind of bonding is the metal bonds. If we take it in a reverse order, the ionic bond implies complete transfer of electrons, the covalent one - let's say, partial transfer, and the metallic one - generation of the electron gas. The atoms of metals have one or two very lively electrons on their outer shell that can be easily given away. As a rule, such electrons do not belong to one atom. As a result we get something similar to balloons - metal atoms flowing in the electron gas. This leads to generation of very strong electric forces which tie these atoms together. The metal bonding is exactly the reason why metals are so ductile, because the electrons do not to belong to a single atom, which is why then can be easily moved without inflicting any damage.And, I have already mentioned before, that the hydrogen bond is somewhat different. Being not chemical in nature, it for the most part defines the organic chemistry and our biological life. For instance, if we look at water from the chemical point of view, it should be a gas, but we all know that it's liquid. It is due to such hydrogen bonds, which exist apart from the molecular covalent ones, that water is liquid. Although entirely neutral in itself, a water molecule is polarized. The hydrogen atoms are pushed closer to the oxygen atom. Such polarization, as we can see, leads to generation of intermolecular forces. They are rather weak, on the one hand, but strong enough to make water liquid, instead of gaseous. Atomic bonds are also very important in polymers and organics. For example, a DNA molecule forms a spiral due to the hydrogen bonding. Thus, we have seen that electrons are not only a part of electronics and something used by us in our everyday life, but also a fundamental elementary particle that forms our world.